GERMANY - SEPTEMBER 09:  Photogravure after a painting.Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) was a rival of Isaac Newton�s (1642-1727) and both mathematicians claimed to have invented calculus. In 1711 the Royal Society formally recognised Newton as the inventor, however doubt about the theory�s origin remained. As a philosopher, Leibniz expounded the theory that the Universe is composed of 'monads', a simple substance that is used to create all other compounds. He died without recognition and with almost all his work unpublished. From a collection of portraits of scientists published by Photographische Gesellschaft, Berlin, c 1910.   (Photo by SSPL/Getty Images)