Nihilism: Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 19th century (1956). In his most important work, The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer (1788-1860) proposed that man's emotional, physical and sexual desires can never be fulfilled, and advocated a lifestyle negating these basic desires. From the Schopenhauer Archives. A print from Ideas, a volume about the origin and early history of many things, common and less common, essential and inessential, by Readers Union, the Grosvenor Press, London, 1956. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images)