circa 1855:  John Ruskin (1819-1900). English art critic and writer. Published 'Modern Painters' vol. 1, 1843, in 4 later volumes 1846-60 he proffered his views on the principles of true art, 'Seven Lamps of Architecture' 1849, 'Stones of Venice' 1851-53. He championed the works of J.M.W. Turner and the Brotherhood of the Pre-Raphaelites, lectured on art, architecture, political economy of art. First Slade professor of fine arts, Oxford 1869-79,1883-84.  (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)